|Clinical & Cellular Transplant Immunology|
The Clinical and Cellular Transplant Immunology Laboratory is located, together with the Tissue culture/Cellular Immunology Laboratory on Level B1 of ILBS. This laboratory is equipped with modern and latest four and eight colour flowcytometers, it is capable of simultaneously identifying up to 8-10 different molecules on any given cell, and of separating such individual cells from other cells to conduct further genetic and functional analyses. This high performance instrument allows identification of individual cells of interest among millions of other cells in human blood / tissues. The Cellular Immunology Laboratory performs investigation of patients in whom there is a clinical suspicion of immunodeficiency by Immunophenotyping.
This Laboratory performs investigations in determination of HLA B-27, HLA-DR, and HLA- DQ. Human Leukocyte Antigen B*27 (subtypes B*2701-2724) is a class I surface antigen encoded by the B locus in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 and presents microbial antigens to T-cells. HLA-B27 is strongly associated with a certain set of autoimmune diseases like Ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn disease. Facility of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ molecular typing is available in this laboratory. Although current practice does not consider HLA in liver transplantation, however, cellular in vitro studies show a significant role of HLA antigens, Low HLA-DR expression is associated with an increased risk of infection after surgery; HLA compatibility also decreases the alloproliferative response of the recipient to the donor tissue. We have state of art equipments to perform molecular HLA typing.
Another major focus of the lab is to analyse and define the immunedeficency in patients by doing immunophenotyping using flow cytometry. Immunophenotyping is the analysis of heterogeneous populations of cells for the purpose of identifying the presence and proportions of the cells in interest. Antibodies are used to identify cells by detecting specific antigens expressed by these cells, which are known as markers. These markers are usually functional membrane proteins involved in cell communication, adhesion, or metabolism. Immunophenotyping using flow cytometry has become the method of choice in identifying and analyzing the immune cells in a blood sample. By using flowcytometry technology we diagnose immune deficiency for T, B and NK cells in patients.