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Biochemistry (Metabolic Medicine & Immunopathology)
The Department of Biochemistry refects an emphasis on patient care, the clinical aspects of the diseases diagnosed by the clinicians and the emerging importance of using laboratory tests to follow the progression of disease and the efficacy of therapy. The lab caters to core biochemistry, critical care (including clinical hematology), immunology and immunopathology and keeps abreast with the recent major advances in the field of clinical biochemistry. The testing methodologies span a vast panorama from colorimetry, nephelometry, CLIA, ELISA, Western Blot to IIF (microscopic diagnosis). It also plays a role in education and research, total quality management and continual quality improvement through medical, scientific, and technical expertise and optimum use of resources such as well-trained personnel, modern equipment, well-designed physical environment, data processing equipment and other supplies. Cost effective services and participation in public health initiatives for prevention of liver diseases are other hallmarks of the Biochemistry lab. The biochemistry department has benefitted immensely from the contributions and leadership of our Director, who is an outstanding clinician and teacher.
TTG, ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, PRA, PIVKA- II and AFP-L3.
I. Autoimmune Tests
IIF-ANA, ASMA, AMA, p-ANCA, c-ANCA and LKM.
J. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring:Tacrolimus.
K. Liver Transplant Chemistry: ICG Elimination test.
L. Bone Metabolism Test : Total Vitamin D
M. POCT : Spot creatinine, Spot troponin-T, Spot troponin-I, Spot glucose, Spot ABG and Spot ABG with electrolytes.
N. Allergy proïle:Food allergy | Inhalation allergy
Name of the Investigation
Therapeutic Drug Medicine
Liver Transplant Chemistry
Bone Metabolism Test
Point of Care Testing
New Services and Facilities
Serum Total bile acids
CA-72-4 (TAG - 72)
CIBD IF Profile
Anti - TPO Antibody
Serum total bile acid (TBA) levels are used clinically as a sensitive and reliable index of hepato-biliary diseases. Total bile acid measurement is used to assess liver function and increased levels may be indicative of cholestasis, reduced functional hepatic mass, congenital and acquired vascular shunts. NGAL is used as a biomarker of kidney injury. In the case of acute kidney injury (AKI), NGAL is secreted in high levels into the blood and urine within 2 hours of injury. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase is a blood test that measures the level of a substance called GALT, which helps break down milk sugars in our body. A low level of this substance causes a condition called galactosemia. Leptin, a hormone produced mainly by adipocytes (fat cells) that is involved in the regulation of body fat. Leptin interacts with areas of the brain that control hunger and behavior and signals that the body has had enough to eat.
Adiponectin, a protein hormone produced and secreted exclusively by adipocytes (fat cells) that regulates the metabolism of lipids and glucose. Adiponectin infuences the body's response to insulin. Low levels of adiponectin are found in people who are obese (and who are at increased risk of a heart attack). Ghrelin, the "hunger hormone", besides regulating appetite, also plays a signiïcant role in regulating the distribution and rate of use of energy.
Bicarbonate is used to determine disorders of acid –base imbalance.
Cortisol is a stress hormone produced by the adrenal gland that primes the body to take action and its level indicates problems with the adrenal glands or pituitary gland. Serum copper test is one of the diagnostic methods of ascertaining whether a patient is suffering from a deficiency or toxic levels of copper in the body or disorders of copper metabolism, such as Wilson, s disease. ACE test commonly helps diagnose and monitor a disorder called sarcoidosis. It also helps detect or rule out Gaucher’s disease. The Allergy profile test is a blood test used to screen for an allergy to a specific substance or substances if a person presents with acute or chronic allergy-like symptoms in response to triggers, such as exposures to particular foods or environments, and if other family members are known to have allergies. CIBD profile is an indirect IF test for screening and differentiation for antibodies in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Determination of TPO antibody aids in the diagnosis and management of autoimmune thyroid disorders and subclinical hypothyroidism.
β-HCG is useful in the management of trophoblastic tumors, nonseminomatous testicular tumors and seminomas.Increased levels have also been observed in melanoma, carcinomas of breast, gastrointestinal tract, lung and ovaries, and in benign conditions cirrhosis, duodenal ulcer and IBD).β2-Microglobulin helps determine severity and stage of myeloma and prognosis and effective treatment of both multiple myeloma and lymphoma and rarely to assess CNS involvement.CA-242 and CA-72-4(TAG-72) are new tumor markers for pancreatic, colorectal and gastric cancers.NSE is a follow-up marker in patients with NSE-secreting tumors of any type and an auxiliary tool in the diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma, carcinoids, islet cell tumors and neuroblastomas and in the assessment of comatose patients.S-100 is a promising prognostic marker for relapse and mortality risk in melanoma and prion diseases.
Cardiac biomarkers include Troponin I and NT-proBNP.Troponin I if elevated indicates some degree of heart damage and also other acute or chronic conditions like myocarditis, CHF, severe infections, kidney disease, and chronic inflammatory conditions of muscles and skin. NT-proBNP is commonly used in the diagnosis of left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction(cardiac stress) and prognostically in a variety of cardiac disease states including CHF, ACS and chronic stable angina and also renal disease. Serum aldosterone is useful for the investigation of primary and secondary aldosteronism.ACTH(Corticotropin/Cosyntropin) levels in blood are measured to help detect, diagnose and monitor conditions associated with excessive or deficient cortisol in the body.
Initiation of Bidirectional interfacing of chemistry and immunoassay analyzers.
Enhanced scope of accreditation of NABL by 30 tests to include endocrinology, oncology, bone metabolism, immunology and inflammatory markers.
Preparation of SOPs of tests added in the scope of NABL including those of critical care(also Haematology).
Introduction of EQAS programme for immunology tests and infammatory markers.
Quality control measures for ABG Tests.
Conducted two screening camps for hepatitis and fatty liver on 26/7/15 and 4/12/15.
Part of team for “Healthy liver Healthy Delhi” project of ILBS with Mylan pharmaceuticals.