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Dr. Sanal Madhusudan Girija  
Dr. Sanal Madhusudan Girija
Associate Professor

The major interests of my laboratory:

1) Stem cell biology: Improving induced pluripotent stem cells, Making functional and transplantable ‘hepatocyte like cells’ from various cell types, especially induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells

2) Gene crafting: using various genome editing tools, viral vectors (gene therapy) etc.

3) Cell fate: We are also interested in the events that are involved in early development in mammals, how one cell becomes another, the gain and loss of cellular identity. 

4) Adipose tissue biology: adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells, changes in adipose tissue in liver diseases, Life-style Associated Liver Diseases (LALD) such as fatty liver disease.  





Academic/Professional training

Postdoctoral Fellow

University of Florida,2033 Mowry Road Gainesville, FL 32611, USA

Adeno Associated Virus, Gene Therapy

Visiting Scientist

Institut Pasteur, 25-28 Rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris, France

Oocyte isolation, culture and irradiation

Research Associate/

Postdoctoral Fellow


Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, 10461, USA

  • Focused Liver Orthovoltage X-ray Irradiation
  • Regenerative Medicine
  • Structural Biology and Imaging
  • NMR Spectroscopy

Senior Research Officer

Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences,New Delhi, 110070, India

Embryonic stem cell/iPSC biology, Biomaterials

Visiting Fellow

National Center for Biological Sciences,GKVK Campus, Bangalore, 560065, India

Embryonic stem cell/iPSC biology, Cell and Molecular biology

Senior Research Fellow & CSIR NET JRF

Special Center for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Adipokines, Genetics

House Surgeon

Kerala State Co-Op Hospital Complex, Kerala, 670503, India


Medicine, Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Pediatrics, Social and Preventive Medicine, Forensic Medicine


Adeno Associated Virus, Retrovirus/Lentivirus engineering

Foamy Virus Assembly  

Gene Therapy

Genome Editing

Oocyte Isolation and Culture

Molecular Cloning

Focused Liver Orthovoltage X-ray Irradiation

Multiphoton Microscopy

Generation and culture of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)

Generation of Liver Organoids from iPSC

Isolation and culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells






Jawaharlal Nehru University

Molecular Medicine


Calicut University


Number of publications
Clinical Int

Gene Therapy, ARTs

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Research Int

Research Work

Gene Therapy

Stem Cell Biology

  • Total Number of publications of that faculty member:                                                34
  • Total number of projects:                                                                                                 3


Details/List of the funded projects (as PI):

  1. Gene Correction and Disease Modelling using iPSC derived from Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Patients.2016, Funding: SERB, Government of India Type: Early career grant for 3 years (INR 4,200,000)
  2. “To Evaluate the Effectiveness of Foamy Virus Mediated Gene Delivery and Strategies to Induce Transgene Tolerance in a Mouse Model of Haemophilia A”, Funding DBT (INR 5,000,000 between ILBS & NII)
  3. “Cell therapy in an animal model of Hemophilia using Genome-edited hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from patient derived induced pluripotent stem cells” Funding DBT (ILBS and ICGEB, Delhi, at a total cost of Rs. 42.952 lakhs)

2021- 2023

  1. Sanal MG. Is the change from NAFLD to MASLD driven by political correctness? J Hepatol. 2023 Sep 6:S0168-8278(23)05081-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2023.08.027. PMID: 37683734
  2. Sanal MG, Srivastava A. Gene Therapy for Hemophilia A. N Engl J Med. 2022 Jun 9;386(23):2247. PMID: 35675186  (correspondence)
  3. Sanal MG, Gupta S, Saha R, Vats N, Sarin SK. Hepatitis B Virus x Protein Increases Cellular OCT3/4 and MYC and Facilitates Cellular Reprogramming. Cell Reprogram. 2023 Oct;25(5):224-237. PMID: 37769039 (corresponding author)
  4. Sarita, Kumaraswamy P, Sarita, Archna Rastogi, Viniyendra Pamecha, Sanal MG Effect of chronic liver disease in adipose tissue-adipose tissue is characterized by inflammation and angiogenic changes.  Conference Abstract ACGT Annual Meeting 2022 meeting, CMC Vellore).
  5. Sanal MG, Rahul Saha, et al. Some of the beneficial effects of Metformin could be attributed to modulation of intestinal nuclear receptors (manuscript in preparation)
  6. Sarita, Kumaraswamy P et al. Chronic liver disease creates a pro-angiogenic state in adipose tissue producing increased factor 8 which modulates prothrombotic and hypo-coagulable states in cirrhosis Manuscript submitted 2023 (corresponding author)



  1. Sanal, M. G., & Duby, R. C. (2020). An oral live attenuated vaccine strategy against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV). Research Ideas and Outcomes, 6, e53767. (corresponding author)
  2. Bhardwaj D, Shivaprasad D P, Patel P, Chakotiya A, Taneja P, Sachdev D, Gupta S, Taneja NK, Sanal MG Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm forming, antimicrobial resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Indian dairy and meat products. Int J Food Microbiol. 2021 Jan 2;336:108899. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108899. PMID: 33160121
  3. Vats, N., Sanal, M. G., Venugopal, S. K., Taneja, P., & Sarin, S. K. (2020). Cloning of Human ABCB11 Gene in E. coli required the removal of an Intragenic Pribnow-Schaller Box before it’s Insertion into Genomic Safe Harbor AAVS1 Site using CRISPR Cas9. F1000Res. 2020 Dec 23;9:1498.PMID: 33868646 (corresponding author)
  4. Vats, N., Dubey, R. C., Sanal, M. G., Taneja, P., & Venugopal, S. K. (2020). Glibenclamide, ATP and Metformin Increases the Expression of Human Bile Salt Export Pump ABCB11. F1000Res. 2020 Dec 22;9:1497. PMID: 33763207 (corresponding author)
  5. Sanal MG. One plus one could be greater than two: combining the powers of somatic cell nuclear transfer with Yamanaka’s factors in generation of clinical grade human pluripotent stem cells.  (Book chapter, “Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells – Novel Concepts”, a forthcoming volume which will be in the Elsevier series "Advances in Stem Cell Biology". 2020.  Elsevier, San Diego, California (publisher)   



  1. Sanal MG, K Paul, S Kumar, NK Ganguly Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning: The Future of Medicine and Medical Practice.   Journal of The Association of Physicians of India, 2019
  2. "Augmenter of liver regeneration enhances cell proliferation via miRNA-26a /Akt/cyclin D1 pathway in hepatic cells" by Gupta, Parul ; Sata, Teja ; Ahamad, Naushad; Islam, Rakibul; Yadav, Ajay; Mishra, Amit; Nithiyananthan, Subramaniyam; Chinnasamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Sanal, MG; V, Senthil. Hepatology Research 2019
  3. Gupta P, Sata T, Yadav AK, Mishra A, Vats N, Hossain MM, Sanal MG, Venugopal SK.TGF-β induces liver fibrosis via miRNA-181a-mediated down regulation of augmenter of liver regeneration in hepatic stellate cells.PLoS One. 2019 Jun 5;14(6):e0214534.
  4. Sarita, Sanal MG.  Ribosomopathies - a tree of pathologies with many roots and branches! (Book chapter, Emerging Concepts in Ribosome Structure Biogenesis and Function. 2019Editor: Kumar V, accepted by Elsevier, San Diego, California (publisher)
  5. AK Singh, C. Weber, A. Varshney, S. Gupta, S. N. Kazim, M. G. Sanal, A. Rethwilm, S. K. Sarin. Characterization of liver specific promoters in a foamy viral vector pMD09.Acta Virologica :2019, Volume: 63, Issue: 2 p 174-180 (Note: My role in this paper is limited to manuscript drafting and interpretation of data which was provided to me).
  6. Sarita, Kumaraswamy P, S I Singh, A. Rastogi,  N. Vats, P. Gupta, N. Jain, D Verma, S. Venugopal, V. Pamecha, Sanal MG Chronic Liver Disease Induces Senescence in Mesenchymal Stem Cells ISGCON,  2018, Kochi Absract IJG 2018


Before 2018

  1. Sanal MG. Precision Medicine: Understanding the Bottlenecks. Precision Medicine, Vol.1 No 1| 2016 | 15-17. (corresponding author)
  2. Chen Y, Li Y, Wang X, Zhang W, Sauer V, Chang CJ, Han B, Tchaikovskaya T, Avsar Y, Tafaleng E, Madhusudana Girija Sanal, Tar K, Polgar Z, Strom S, Bouhassira EE, Guha C, Fox IJ, Roy-Chowdhury J, Roy-Chowdhury N.Amelioration of Hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn Rats after Transplantation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes. Stem Cell Reports 2015-06-09 | journal-article PMID: 26074313 URL:
  3. Sanal MG. Cell therapy from bench to bedside: Hepatocytes from fibroblasts - the truth and myth of transdifferentiation. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2015-06 | journal-article. PMID: 26074681 URL: (corresponding author)
  4. Sanal MG. Biomarkers in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-the emperor has no clothes? World J Gastroenterol. 2015-03 | journal-article PMID: 25805928 URL: (corresponding author)
  5. Sanal MG. A Highly Efficient method for Generation of Therapeutic Quality Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by using naive iPSC nucleus for nuclear transfer (iPCNT). SAGE Open Medicine. 2014 | journal-article PMID: 26770740  URL: (corresponding author)
  6. Sanal MG. Personalized Medicine in Cell Therapy and Transplantation 2013 | Book Chapter. Springer (publisher) DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1184-6_33 ISBN: 978-81-322-1183-9
  7. Sanal MG, Dhananjay M, Saira, SK Sarin. Generation Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Like Colonies From Human Omental Mesenchymal Cells. Asia Pacific Association for Study of Liver. 2012 | conference-paper. URL:
  8. Sanal MG. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the concept and confusion. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2011-12 | journal-article PMID: 22105730 URL: author)
  1. Integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells for disease modelling and treatment of inherited liver diseases: transition of miRNA profiles during reprogramming and differentiation to hepatocytes. Hepatology Sanal MG. 2011-11 | conference-paper.
  2. Jagannath Pal, Sanal MG, G. Gopal Vitamin-C as anti-Helicobacter pylori agent: More prophylactic than curative- Critical review. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Nov;43(6):624-7. 2011-11 | journal-article. PMC: PMC3229773;jsessionid=ppKGlw7vKT4DEe9I8dBo.4
  3. Sanal MG. SK Sarin.  Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with metabolic syndrome in Indian population.  Diabetes Metab Syndr.  v 2011 | journal-article2011 Apr-Jun;5(2):76-80. PMID: 2281340  DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2012.02.015 ISSN: 1871-4021.
  4. Sanal MG. Future of liver transplantation: Non-human primates for patient-specific organs from induced pluripotent stem cells.World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Aug 28;17(32):3684-90. PMID: 21990949 2011 | journal-article. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i32.3684 ISSN: 1007-9327. (corresponding author)
  5. Sanal MG. Adipose tissue transplantation may be a potential treatment for diabetes, atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Mar;72(3):247-9.  | journal-article PMID: 19046821. ISSN: 0306-9877 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.10.009. (corresponding author)
  6. Sanal MG SK Sarin. Serum adipokine profile in Indian men with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Serum adiponectin is paradoxically decreased in lean vs. obese patients. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 2009 |DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2009.07.012 ISSN: 1871-4021.
  7. A Madhavan, Beena Kumari, Sanal MG. A pilot study on the usefulness of body mass index and waist hip ratio as a predictive tool for gestational diabetes in Asian Indians. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2008 Dec;24(12):701-7. 2008 | journal-article PMID: 19172540. ISSN: 0951-3590 DOI: 10.1080/09513590802444134. (corresponding author)
  8. Sanal MG. The blind men 'see' the elephant-the many faces of fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Feb 14;14(6):831-44. 2008 | journal-article. PMID: 18240340 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.14.831 ISSN: 1007-9327. (corresponding author)
  9. Sanal MG. Where are we going in science? Publish and perish! Current Science2006 | journal-article. URL: (corresponding author)


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