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Kidney Transplant or Renal Transplant is a surgical procedure where in one kidney from a donor (living or deceased) is transplanted in a patient whose both kidneys have failed or stopped functioning (known as End-stage Renal Disease or ESRD). Kidney transplant is the procedure of choice for these ESRD patients.
The indication for kidney transplantation is end-stage renal disease(ESRD), regardless of the primary cause. This is defined as a glomerular filtration rate <15ml/min/1.73 sq.m. Common diseases leading to ESRD include infections, diabetes mellitus and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; genetic causes include polycystic kidney disease, a number of inborn errors of metabolism, and autoimmune conditions such as lupus. Diabetes is fast becoming most common cause of ESRD requiring kidney transplantation in India.
The majority of renal transplant recipients are on dialysis ( or hemofiltration) at the time of transplantation. However, individuals with chronic renal failure who have a living donor available may undergo pre-emptive transplantation before dialysis is needed.
All the patients who have ESRD and on any form dialysis are candidates for renal transplant of their general condition allow them to undergo this major surgery. The contraindications include both cardiac and pulmonary insufficiency, as well as hepatic disease.
Significant cardiovascular disease, incurable terminal infectious diseases and often are transplant exclusion criteria. In addition, candidates are typically screened to determine if they will be compliant with their medications, which is essential for survival of the transplant.